History of NEP (National Education Policy):
To guide the development of education of country, NEP represent a comprehensive framework. In, 1964, Siddheswar Prasad, a congress MP, first time criticized the then government and felt that country need an education Policy. A 17-member education commission which was headed by the then UGC chairperson DS Kothari, constituted a draft for national and co-ordination policy on education in 1964.
In 1968, the first education policy was passed on the recommendation of this commission under Indira Gandhi. The second policy in 1986 was under Rajiv Gandhi. In 1992, NEP was revised under Narasima Rao. In 2020, third NEP is released under the prime minister Narendra Modi.
Current Scenario of NEP
In 2014, HRD ministry, Smrity Irani, constituted a committee chaired by TSR Subramaniam and submitted its report on 7th May 2016.
A 9-member committee was formed by the ministry of human resources development which is chaired by Dr. K. Kasturiranga to prepare the National Education Policy in June 2017 and submitted its report in 2019, May 31.
Important changes in the new education policy 2020
- The name of the ministry of Human Resource Development change to Education Ministry.
- Government of India proposed to increase GDP investment in education from 1.6% to 6%.
- Focused on gross enrolment ratio and targeted to increased it to 50% by 2035.
Features of NEP 2020
Current education policy which is submitted by Kasturiranga committee focus to address the present challenges in the existence education system as:
- Quality of Education
- Difficult to afford
- From school to higher education is reformed through this policy.
- More emphasis is given on the strength of teachers training, reformation of the existing exam system, early childhood education brings under the framework of education.
Other than this, attention is also given
- In the public investment to increase NEC (National Education Commission) set up.
- Pay heed to vocational and adult education.
- More attention given to the use of technology.
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The National Education Policy (NEP) 2020, try to make implementation in different sections of education.
- Early Education
- The right to education Act 2009.
- Curriculum framework
- School Exams
- Higher Education Institutions
- National Mission on Education
- National Research Foundation
- Education Governance
- Financing Education
- Vocational Courses
- Three Language Formula
1. Early Education
In two parts the early childhood and education will be developed which are recommendation by NEP are:
- Up to 3 years of student, there is a guideline for parents as well as teachers.
- Students aged between 3 – 5 years there is an educational framework.
To implement this recommendation NEP focused on the improvement of Anganwadi system and these will be along with primary schools.
2. Right to Education Act 2009
Extension of the Right to Education Act 2009 is recommendation by NEP which include
- Early Childhood
- Secondary School
This will cover the children of ages 3-18 years under RTE.
3. Curriculum Framework
The previous curriculum Framework of 1986 was like 10+2 which is changed in the new education policy is 5+3+3+4.
- Foundational Stage: (3-8) years i.e. 5 years. First 3 years is Pre-Primary and then class 1 and class 2.
- Preparatory Stage: (8-11) year i.e. 3 years, From classes 3 to 5.
- Middle Stage: 11-14 year i.e. 3 years, From classes 6 to 8.
- Secondary Stage: 14-18 years i.e. 5 years, From classes 9 to 12.
4. Reform in School Exam
To track the progress of the students in school, NEP recommend reforms in school exam
- In the examination of class 3,5 and 8 state census is included.
- Restructure the broad exam of 10th in which focus and tests will be only on skills, fundamental knowledge and innovative thinking and capabilities.
5. Higher Education Institutions
Accreditation and Regulatory structure. The NEP recommended in the Accreditation and Regulatory structure such as
- A NHERA (National Higher Education Regulatory Authority) will be set up.
- NAAC will be an autonomous and independent body which was funded by UGC.
6. National Mission on Education
For the facilitating of making decision on deployment, induction and technological usage NEP suggested to set up of an autonomous body. This can be achieved by improving the following:
- National Education Technology Forum will be established and the autonomous body will administer under the control of this mission.
- To provide remote access, virtual laboratories will be implemented for different disciplines.
7. National Research Education
Attention is given to improve the research quality and the following is recommended by NEP.
- A National Research Foundation will be established which will be an autonomous body. It would found, administer monitoring and build capacity for better research in India.
8. Education Governance
Under the name of Rashtriya Shiksha Aayog or National Education Commission which is headed by Prime Minister established an apex body for education. Name of the Ministry of Human Resources and Development changed to Ministry of Education.
9. Finance of Education
Focus is given on to increase public investment in the areas of education which is highlights in the NEP.
- It is insisted through NEP 2020 that a total of 6 % of the GDP will be for education.
- It is also recommended that public expenditure will be doubled from 10% to 20%.
10. Vocational Courses
There is also some recommendation for vocational courses in NEP 2020 as:
- Students between classes 9 to 12 will get vocational education at least in one subject.
- To create competition at school level there will implement expert curriculum delivery methods in School aligning with National Skills Qualifications Framework (NSQF).
- Vocational courses must be provided in Higher Education Institutions which will be integrated into undergraduate education programs.
11. Three Language Formula
The three language formula will be continued and implement this formula in a flexible manner. According to this formula state government must adopt & make improvement in the study of modern Indian language, most probably any southern language other than Hindi and English for the Hindi-Speaking states, and Hindi will be included with regional language and Hindi for the Non-Hindi Speaking states.
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Challenges of National Education Policy 2020
- This policy recommended for a creative and critical thinking considering contemporary global scenario where situation is not suitable for this kind of changes.
- The changes proposed for Anganwadis may create difficulties though early childhood care and schooling is focused.
- There are not clear strategies in Public Sector such as municipal school, state-run institutions, Kendra Vidyalaya etc.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
Q1. Name the chairman of the National Education Policy 2020?
Ans: The name of the National Education Policy 2020 is K. Kasturirangan.
Q2. What is the current curriculum framework?
Ans: The current curriculum framework is 5+3+3+4.